Alternating Quark Model: First Principles to Fusion
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A subnucleonic structure of light nuclei comprises an alternating up and down quark sequence (AQS) that accounts for the measured RMS charge radii with an agreement of >99% and statistical correlation of ρ = 0.99, p<0.001. An interpretation of the uncertainty principle in terms of uncertainty in energy and time, coupled with Chaos theory as relates to linked harmonic oscillators, allows localization of average quark position. Structures incorporate equally spaced quarks around regular polyhedron geometries. The distance between neighboring quarks in a sequence is constant and equal to the radius of the proton. Light nuclei from H-3 to Li-7 conform to ring structures whose radii are calculated from the formula of a regular polygon having n sides, each side equal to the radius of the proton, and n vertices, each occupied by a quark. Quark-quark interactions link nucleons to maintain a continuous sequence of alternating equally spaced quarks. Parallel strands of quark sequences overlap so that protons overlap with neutrons. Regular polyhedron structures yield better radius predictions; larger nuclei tend to be less regular and less predictable (with the exception of C-12). The relative certainty in the accepted radius of helium-4, and its geometric relationship tithe proton radius, allow a prediction for the proton radius of 0.8673±0.0014 fm.