Structures of stable light nuclei incorporate an alternating up and down quark sequence (AQS) of equally spaced quarks around regular polyhedron geometries. AQS is a ball-and-stick model in which the ball represents the average center of cur- rent quark mass, and the stick length is constant and equal to the radius of the proton. AQS radius predictions of H-1 through Li-7 demonstrate 99.3% average agreement (SD 4%) and statistical correlation of ρ = 0.96, p<0.001, with accepted RMS charge radii. Light nuclei above deuterium conform to ring structures whose radii are calculated from the formula of a regular polygon having n sides, each side equal to the radius of the proton, and n vertices, each occupied by a quark. Quark-quark interactions link nucleons to maintain a continuous sequence of alternating equally spaced quarks. Parallel strands of quark sequences overlap so that protons overlap with neutrons. Regular polyhedron structures yield better radius predictions; larger nuclei tend to be less regular and less predictable (with the exception of C-12). The relative certainty in the accepted radius of helium-4, and its geometric relationship tithe proton radius, allow a prediction for the proton radius of 0.8673±0.0014 fm. ASQ localizes average quark position, and the high statistical correlation of ASQ with experimental radii thus warrants an expression of the uncertainty principle as the product of uncertainty in energy and time rather than position and momentum. This view is consistent with the quark as a harmonic oscillator.
An Alternating Quark Sequence Subnucleonic Structure of Stable Light Nuclei H-1 Through Li-7
- Raymond Walsh Dr Raymond Walsh, PLLC
Version number 3 includes a section entitled AQS and the Uncertainty Principle