Energy

A Representational Alternating Quark Model of Nuclear Structure

Authors

Abstract

Protons and neutrons within the atomic nucleus each contain three quarks. No consensus exists on a role for quarks in nuclear structure, and treating protons and neutrons as point-like particles has been sufficient to explain an enormous body of experi- mental results. The methodologies for achieving these results are quite complex and computationally intensive, however. The alternating quark model (AQM) is a simplistic ball-and-stick model (akin to molecular ball-and-stick models or Lewis dot structures in the field of chemistry) that uses pre-university algebra and trigonometry to solve for structures of stable nuclei through Ar-36 based on average quark positions within equally-spaced alternating up/down quark sequences. Corresponding radius predictions correlate near perfectly (r(33) = .99, 2-tail p <.001) with accepted RMS charge radii, and explain the erratic radius-to-mass below Li-6 and the linear radius-to-mass above. Larger structures conform to an anisotropic cylindrical lattice of alternating nucleons arranged within stacked 6-nucleon rings, wherein one end of the cylindrical nucleus exhibits shell-like periodicity. A complete shell comprises a duodectet of 12 valence nucleons. Structural periodicity is validated by a corre- sponding periodicity in nuclear magnetic moments and single-nucleon nucleosynthesis. A nuclides’ quark structure serves as a substrate in the steric selection of single-nucleon net nucleosynthesis in a way analogous to base pair selection in DNA replication. Products with contiguous alternating quark sequences are stable, and products without them are unstable. A sequence of alternating +2/3 and -1/3 charge (equivalent to up and down quark charge) set 0.84 fm apart (equal to the radius of the proton) demonstrates a Coulomb-like potential energy barrier as determined by a mathematical matrix employing Cou- lombs Law. Removing a single charge from such an alternating sequence of charges demonstrates a short-range attractive force that mimics quantum mechanical asymptotic freedom and quark confinement. Implications for the European Muon Collaboration effect are discussed.

Version notes

The alternating quark model is shown as a representational model like molecular ball and stick models or Lewis dot structures. This version includes a periodic table of nuclear structures through Ar-36 that correlates with nuclear magnetic moments and the pattern of single-nucleon nucleosynthesis in a way analogous to the causal relationship between electron orbital structure and periodic properties such as electronegativity. A shell model of nuclear structure is introduced in which the nucleus is an anisotropic cylindrical lattice of alternating nucleons and a complete shell comprises a duodectet of 12 valence nucleons. This contrasts the spherical symmetry of electron orbital theory. The juxtaposition of alternating/unequal quark charges within a simple matrix arrangement of opposing deuteron quark charges is shown to produce a Coulomb-like potential barrier. Removal of a single charge from a sequence of 6 deuteron quark charges demonstrates electrostatic confinement that mimics asymptotic freedom and quantum mechanical quark confinement.

Content

Thumbnail image of Rep AltQuarkMod of Nuc Structure.pdf

Supplementary material

Thumbnail image of Alt Quark 10'.mov
Alt Quark 10'
A short introduction to the alternating quark model, a ball and stick quark model of nuclear structure
Thumbnail image of AQM 41'.mov
AQM 41'
A 41' introduction to the alternating quark model, a ball and stick quark model of nuclear structure