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Transition Energy, Orientation Force and Work Done in Transitional Behavior Atoms: Formulating New Principles in Thermodynamics

preprint
revised on 24.03.2020 and posted on 25.03.2020 by Mubarak Ali
A study of different parameters in thermodynamics is important to describe the science of various physical and chemical phenomena. At suitable level of ground surface, solid atoms give birth to condensed matter science when dealing with different transition behaviors. A same is the case in atoms of gas behaviors but in a different way. In this context, this study finds an anomaly associated with the first law of thermodynamics. The anomaly is resolved for the equations of change in the internal energy of a system composed of atoms. To undertake transition state, a gas atom involves transitional energy in a gaining manner. Hence, the work is carried out by that gas atom. This can be registered symbolically in a plus form. A solid atom involves transitional energy absorbed in undertaking transition state. Hence, the work is carried out on that solid atom, which can be registered in a minus form. In a system composed of gas or solid atoms, varying energy and force introduce different transition states. Orientational force of an electron (either in the transition of gaseous atom or in the transition of solid atom) positions it by varying potential energy under transitional energy. Based on the orientation of electrons, understandable concepts of cooling and heating are deduced from their respective gas atoms and solid atoms when recovering from their gained ‘attaining liquid states’.

History

Email Address of Submitting Author

mubarak74@mail.com

Institution

COMSATS University Islamabad

Country

Pakistan

ORCID For Submitting Author

0000-0003-1612-6014

Declaration of Conflict of Interest

no conflict of interest

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