Inorganic Chemistry

Transition Energy, Orientation Force and Work Done in Transitional Behavior Atoms: Formulating New Principles in Thermodynamics



Studying basic parameters of heat and thermodynamics may explore new principles in science. Gaseous and solid atoms under transitional behaviors can explore remarkable advances in chemical and physical sciences. An anomaly in the first law of thermodynamics can be recognized explicitly when the transitional behaviors of atoms are in the study. By gaining transition energy, gaseous atoms undertake a transition state. Hence, the work performs by the gaseous atoms. Symbolically, a plus sign requires for it. But the transitions in solid atoms occur because of the absorbing transition energy. So, the work performance is in the minus sign. A different force exerts on the electron of a gaseous atom and a solid atom, where transition energy changes the potential energy of the electron, thus controlling the orientation force. An anomaly resolves by changing the equations of internal energy. Gaseous and solid atoms introduce cooling and heat effects in elastically driven electronic states till the mid-states. A mid-state of a transition state falls between re-crystallization and liquid states. In generating cooling or heating energy, an electron executes dynamics by remaining within the occupied energy knot. Thus, constantly driven electronic states of atoms cause disorder and irreversible cycles. The study presents a basic understanding of the first law of thermodynamics, cold and heat energy, entropy, and condensed matter science at the atomic and electronic levels under a new insight.

Version notes

More references are included to finalize the paper. Some minor changes are also made throughout the manuscript.


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