- Mubarak Ali COMSATS University Islamabad
A study of different parameters in thermodynamics is essential to explore the science of various phenomena. When transition states do not reinstate their original states, solid atoms can be related to condensed matter. The same can be the case with gaseous atoms but differently. An anomaly in the first law of thermodynamics can be found while studying the transitional behaviors of atoms. A gaseous atom involves the transitional energy in a gaining manner while undertaking the mid-state. Hence, the work is carried out by that gaseous atom. It should be registered symbolically in a plus form. A solid atom involves the transitional energy in an absorbing manner while undertaking the mid-state. Hence, the work is carried out on that solid atom. It should be registered symbolically in a minus form. Thus, the anomaly is resolved for the change equations in the internal energy system. In a gaseous atom or solid atom system, transition energy is introduced in attaining the mid-state. Hence, gaseous and solid atoms engage different orientation forces to orientate the electrons. In an atom, transition energy changes the potential energy of an electron, whereby it controls the position through orientation force. Gaseous and solid atoms introduce cooling and heat effects when electrons start to restore from the mid-states. A mid-state exists between re-crystallization and liquid states in gaseous or solid atoms. An electron executes dynamics by remaining within the occupied energy knot. Thus, constantly driven electronic states of atoms cause disorder and irreversible cycles.
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