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Transition Energy, Orientation Force and Work Done in Transitional Behavior Atoms: Formulating New Principles in Thermodynamics

revised on 27.01.2020 and posted on 31.01.2020 by Mubarak Ali

A study of different parameters in thermodynamics is important for sustainable science behind physical and chemical phenomena. This study finds anomaly associated with the first law of thermodynamics. The anomaly is resolved for the equations of change in the internal energy of a system composed of atoms. A gas atom involves transitional energy gained to undertake transition state. Hence, the work is carried out by that gas atom. This can be registered symbolically in a plus form. A solid atom involves transitional energy absorbed to undertake transition state. Hence, the work is carried out on that solid atom, which can be registered in a minus form. At typical level of a ground surface, atoms give birth to condensed matter physics, so atoms of solid behaviors should also give birth to transition matter physics. In a system composed of gas or solid atoms, varying energy and force introduce different transition states. Orientational force of an electron either in the transition of gas atom or in the transition of solid atom is by varying potential energy under transitional energy. Thus, understandable concepts of cooling and heating are deduced from their respective gas atoms and solid atoms when they are recovered from their attained liquid states.


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COMSATS University Islamabad



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