The LimoFish Green Chemistry Process for the Marine Bioeconomy

21 May 2024, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


The outcomes of applying the zero-waste extraction process based on defatting fish processing waste with limonene to leftovers of European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), compared to conventional extraction with oil-derived solvents such as n-hexane and with petroleum ether, show that the biobased “LimoFish” process has general applicability, and meets the principles of green extraction and those of the marine biorefinery requiring high process efficiency. This establishes an “innovation through integration” bioeconomy production that may enable the marine bioeconomy at low capital and operating expenditure.


fish oil
circular economy

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