Interface-Engineered Atomic Layer Deposition of 3D Li4Ti5O12 for High-Capacity Lithium-Ion 3D Thin-Film Batteries

19 April 2024, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Upcoming energy-autonomous mm-scale Internet-of-things devices require high-energy and high-power microbatteries. On-chip 3D thin-film batteries (TFBs) are the most promising option but lack available high-rate anode materials. Here, Li4Ti5O12 thin films fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are electrochemically evaluated on 3D substrates for the first time. The 3D Li4Ti5O12 reveals an excellent footprint capacity of 20.23 µAh cm-2 at 1 C. The outstanding high-rate capability is demonstrated with 7.75 µAh cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 (250 C) while preserving a remarkable capacity retention of 97.4 % after 500 cycles. Planar films with various thicknesses exhibit electrochemical nanoscale effects and are tuned to maximize performance. The developed ALD process enables conformal high-quality spinel (111)-textured Li4Ti5O12 films on Si substrates with an area enhancement of 9. Interface engineering by employing ultrathin AlOx on the current collector facilitates a required crystallization time reduction which ensures high film and interface quality and prospective on-chip integration. This work demonstrates that 3D Li4Ti5O12 by ALD can be an attractive solution for the microelectronics-compatible fabrication of scalable high-energy and high-power Li-ion 3D TFBs.


3D Li-ion microbatteries
atomic layer deposition
high capacity electrodes
high power
lithium titanium oxide (LTO)

Supplementary materials

Supporting Information
Additional discussion of the data and additional figures.


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