Handling Fluorinated Gases as Solid Reagents Using Metal–Organic Frameworks

30 January 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Fluorine is ubiquitous in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries because it improves the bioavailability and metabolic stability of molecules. However, most modern fluoroalkylation and fluorovinylation protocols rely on reagents that are expensive, explosive, or otherwise challenging to use. Fluorinated gaseous reagents are promising alternatives that are overlooked for late-stage functionalization because they require specialized equipment. Herein, we report a general strategy for safely handling inexpensive fluorinated gaseous building blocks as benchtop-stable solid reagents using porous metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). Gas–MOF reagents are employed to facilitate novel fluorovinylation and fluoroalkylation reactions, which represent safe, efficient, and atom-economical alternatives to current methods. Our approach enables high-throughput reaction development with any gaseous reagent, opening the door for the development of myriad new synthetic transformations.


metal-organic framework

Supplementary materials

Supplementary Materials
All experimental details, including procedures for MOF synthesis, synthetic reactions, and computational procedures. All spectroscopic characterization data for MOFs and molecules.


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