Herbicides in the popular chloroacetanilide class harbor a potent electrophilic moiety, which can damage proteins through nucleophilic substitution. In general, damaged proteins are subject to misfolding. Accumulation of misfolded proteins compromises cellular integrity by disrupting cellular proteostasis networks, which can further destabilize the cellular proteome. While direct conjugation targets can be discovered through affinity-based protein profiling, there are few approaches to probe how cellular exposure to toxicants impacts the stability of the proteome. We apply a quantitative proteomics methodology to identify chloroacetanilide-destabilized proteins in HEK293T cells based on their binding to the H31Q mutant of the human Hsp40 chaperone DNAJB8. We find that brief cellular exposure to the chloroacetanilides acetochlor, alachlor, and propachlor induces misfolding of dozens of cellular proteins. These herbicides feature distinct but overlapping profiles of protein destabilization, highly concentrated in proteins with reactive cysteine residues. Propachlor induces a general increase in protein aggregation, and selectively targets GAPDH and PARK7, leading to a decrease in their cellular activities. GAPDH is primarily modified by direct conjugation of propachlor at a catalytic cysteine residue, leading to global destabilization of the protein. The Hsp40 affinity strategy is an effective technique to profile cellular proteins that are destabilized by cellular toxin exposure. Raw proteomics data is available through the PRIDE Archive at PXD030635.