- Peng Peng Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ,
- Lin Yang Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ,
- Akanksha Menon Georgia Institute of Technology & Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ,
- Nathaniel Weger Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory & University of California, Berkeley ,
- Ravi Prasher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory & University of California, Berkeley ,
- Hanna Breunig Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ,
- Sean Lubner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Herein we present a concept of a high-temperature, thermal energy storage (HT-TES) system for large-scale long-duration energy storage (>10-hour discharge) applications. The system relies on tunable composite ceramic materials with high electrical conductivity and can output the stored energy flexibly as heat at 1100 degrees C or higher, and as electricity. We model the performance and cost of the system in a techno-economic analysis to identify key material and system properties influencing viability. For applications with daily operation (12-hour storage duration), we find achieving levelized storage costs below US Department of Energy’s 5 ₵/kWhe (1-2.5 ₵/kWhth equivalent) target by 2030 is possible. Candidate materials should have above 600-900 high-temperature cycle stability while offering at least 104 S/m of electrical conductivity. Our results suggest this system can economically store energy for weeks to months, or a longer discharge duration (96 hours) when coupled with intermittent charging using surplus renewable energy sources.
In the Abstract, Outlook, and Conclusions sections, Version 2 better distinguishes the time energy is stored for, from the "storage duration", which stands for how long the storage system can discharge at the target power. Minor spelling and wording corrections throughout.