Melamine and its analogues are illegally added to raise the apparent protein content in foods. The elevated concentrations of these compounds cause adverse effects in humans and animals. In this contribution, the protective effects of the synthesized starch-stabilized selenium nanoparticles ([email protected]) on melamine-induced hepato-renal toxicity have been systematically investigated. The [email protected] were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping analysis, TEM, and FT-IR. Starch plays a crucial role in the stabilization and dispersion of Se NPs, as noticed from the TEM and EDS investigations. Furthermore, the atomic ratio of Se distribution over the starch surface is approximately 1.67%. The current study was conducted on four groups of adult male rats, and the oral daily treatments for 28 days were as follows: group I served as control, group II received [email protected], group III was exposed to melamine, while group IV was treated with melamine and [email protected] The results reveal a significant alteration in the histoarchitecture of both hepatic and renal tissues induced by melamine. Furthermore, elevated liver and kidney function markers, high malondialdehyde, and increased expression levels of apoptosis-related genes besides a reduction in GSH and expression levels of antioxidant genes were observed in the melamine-exposed group. Interestingly, the administration of the [email protected] resulted in remarkable protection of rats against melamine-induced toxicity through increasing the antioxidant capacity and inhibiting oxidative damage. Collectively, this study provides affordable starch-stabilized Se-NPs with potent biological activity, making them auspicious candidates for prospective biomedical applications.
The title and abstract have been modified. More details in the results and discussion are included in the revised manuscript