Frank-van der Merwe Growth in Bilayer Graphene


Bilayer graphene has attracted significant interest due to its unique properties, including fascinating electrical behavior when one layer is slightly rotated relative to the other. However, the quality of large-area bilayer graphene is often limited by the layer-plus-island growth mode in which islands of thicker graphene present as unavoidable impurities. Here, we report the observation of the layer-by-layer, Frank-van der Merwe (FM) growth mode in bilayer graphene where multilayer impurities are suppressed. Instead of the conventional surface adhesive energy, it is found that interface adhesive energy is possible to be tuned with an oxidative pretreatment. The FM-grown bilayer graphene is of AB-stacking or with small-twisting-angle (θ = 0-5°), which is more mechanically robust compared to monolayer graphene, facilitating a free-standing wet transfer technology.

Version notes

Revisions are made based on reviewers' comments.


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Supplementary material

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Supplementary Materials
Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S14 References Captions for Movies S1 to S3
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Movie S1
Demonstration of Marangoni-enabled bilayer graphene transfer.
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Movie S2
Simulated Marangoni flow passing through a single layer graphene film.
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Movie S3
Simulated Marangoni flow passing through a defective bilayer graphene film.