Physical Chemistry

Operando Studies of Iodine Species in an Advanced Oxidative Water Treatment Reactor



We present an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (eAOP) reactor employing expanded graphite, potassium iodide (KI), and electrical current, which demonstrates an exceptionally high rate of inactivation of E. coli (6log reduction in viable cells) at low current density 0.12 mA/cm^2), with low contact time (5 minutes) and low concentration of KI (10 ppm). Operando X-ray fluorescence mapping is used to show the distribution of iodine species in the reactor, and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the anodic chamber reveals iodine species with higher effective oxidation state than periodate. Operando electrochemical measurements confirm the conditions in the anodic chambers are favourable for the creation of highly oxidized iodine products. The killing efficiency of this new eAOP reactor far exceeds that expected from either traditional iodine-based electrochemical water treatment or advanced oxidation systems alone, a phenomenon that may be associated with the production of highly oxidized iodine species reported here.

Version notes

Revised manuscript following reviewer comments.


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Supplementary material

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Supporting Information
Diagrams of reactors used, electron microscopy of inactivated bacteria, X-ray absorption spectra of standards, operando X-ray absorption spectra of different locations in the reactor, cyclic voltammetry of a KI solution using an expanded graphite electrode, table summarizing performance of relevant technologies