Grids to Illustrate Induction and Resonance Effects: Aromatic Acidity and Basicity

18 February 2020, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


The effect of substituents on the acidity of benzoic acids and anilines has been organized in grids to demonstrate the inductive and resonance effects. The relation between structure and pKa is emphasized by a new educational process: the Search-Organize-Predict (SOP) procedure.


Advanced undergraduate
organic chemistry for chemistry majors
acid/base chemistry
resonance effects
inductive effects
benzoic acid


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