These are preliminary reports that have not been peer-reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or be reported in news media as established information. For more information, please see our FAQs.
Preprints are manuscripts made publicly available before they have been submitted for formal peer review and publication. They might contain new research findings or data. Preprints can be a draft or final version of an author's research but must not have been accepted for publication at the time of submission.
revised on 24.08.2020 and posted on 25.08.2020by Jian Luo, Bo Hu, wenda wu, maowei hu, Tianbiao Liu
Nickel (Ni) catalyzed carbon-carbon (C−C) cross-coupling has been considerably developed in last decades and has demonstrated unique reactivities compared to palladium. However, existing Ni catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, despite success in organic synthesis, are still subject to the use of air-sensitive nucleophiles (i.e. Grignard and organozinc reagents), or catalysts (i.e. Ni0 pre-catalysts), significantly limiting their academic and industrial adoption. Herein, we report that, through electrochemical voltammetry screening and optimization, the redox neutral C(sp2)‒C(sp3) cross-coupling can be accomplished in an undivided cell configuration using bench-stable aryl halide or β-bromostyrene (electrophiles) and benzylic trifluoroborate (nucleophiles) reactants, non-precious, bench stable catalysts consisting of NiCl2•glyme pre-catalyst and polypyridine ligands under ambient conditions. The broad reaction scope and good yields of the Ni-catalyzed electrochemical coupling reaction were confirmed by 48 examples of aryl/β-styrenyl chloride/bromide and benzylic trifluoroborates. Its potential applications were demonstrated by late-stage functionalization of pharmaceuticals and natural amino acid modification. Furthermore, this electrochemical C−C cross-coupling reaction was demonstrated at gram-scale in a flow-cell electrolyzer for practical industrial adoption. Finally, an array of chemical and electrochemical studies mechanistically indicates that electrochemical C−C cross-coupling reaction proceeds through an unconventional radical trans-metalation mechanism.