Catalytic Resonance Theory: The Catalytic Mechanics of Programmable Ratchets

10 June 2024, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Catalytic reaction networks of multiple elementary steps operating under dynamic conditions via a programmed input oscillation are difficult to interpret and optimize due to reaction system complexity. To understand these dynamic systems, individual elementary catalytic reactions were evaluated to identify their three fundamental characteristics that define their ability to promote reactions away from equilibrium. First, elementary catalytic reactions exhibit directionality to promote reactions forward or backward from equilibrium as determined by a ratchet directionality metric comprised of the input oscillation duty cycle and the reaction rate constants. Second, catalytic ratchets are defined by the catalyst state of strong or weak binding that permit reactants to proceed through the transition state. Third, elementary catalytic ratchets exhibit a cutoff frequency which defines the transition in applied frequency for which the catalytic ratchet functions to promote chemistry away from equilibrium. All three ratchet characteristics are calculated from chemical reaction parameters including rate constants derived from linear scaling parameters, reaction conditions, and catalyst conditions. The characteristics of the reaction network’s constituent elementary catalytic reactions provided an interpretation of complex reaction networks and a method of predicting the behavior of dynamic surface chemistry on oscillating catalysts.



Supplementary materials

Supplementary Information for Catalytic Resonance Theory: The Catalytic Mechanics of Programmable Ratchets
Supplementary material includes tabulated data in paper figures, derivation of equations, and comparison of model fits to data

Supplementary weblinks


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