Fabrication of High-Density Microarchitected Tungsten via DLP 3D Printing

22 April 2024, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Current additive manufacturing (AM) techniques for tungsten, such as powder bed fusion and directed energy deposition, often generate parts with rough surfaces. Vat photopolymerization presents a promising alternative for fabricating intricate tungsten structures with high shape fidelity and low surface roughness. However, existing vat photopolymerization approaches suffer from surface defects and low final density, leading to compromised mechanical properties. Therefore, achieving high-density tungsten structures using vat photopolymerization remains a crucial challenge. This work presents a straightforward and reliable method for fabricating complex, micro-architected tungsten structures with superior density and hardness. The approach utilizes a water-based photoresin with exceptional tungsten ion loading capacity. The photoresin is then patterned using digital light processing (DLP) to create intricate tungsten-laden precursors. A meticulously designed three-step debinding and sintering process subsequently achieves three-dimensional tungsten structures with dense surface morphology and minimal internal defects. The microstructures achieve a minimum feature size of 35 μm, a low surface roughness of 2.86 μm, and demonstrate exceptional mechanical properties. This new method for structuring tungsten opens doors to a broad range of applications, including micromachining, collimators, detectors, and metamaterials.


additive manufacturing
digital light processing

Supplementary materials

SI_3D printing of tungsten
Supplementary Materials of 3D printing of tungsten


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