Core-electron contributions to the magnetic response of molecules with heavy elements and their significance in aromaticity assessments

12 April 2024, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


This study delves into the magnetic response of core electrons and their influence on the global magnetic response of systems planar and three-dimensional containing heavy elements, employing the removing valence electron (RVE) approximation. We also explore electronic aromaticity indices to understand the potential role of core electrons on electron delocalization in absence of an external perturbation. The study reveals that core electrons significantly contribute to the overall magnetic response, especially to the magnetic shielding, affecting the interpretation of aromaticity. In contrast, the calculation of the electronic aromaticity indices suggests a negligible participation of the core electrons to the electron delocalization. Despite its widespread use, the study emphasizes caution in labeling systems as strongly aromatic based solely on shielding function computations. It is noteworthy to emphasize the limitations associated with each aromaticity criterion, particularly in the context of magnetic shielding function calculations, the core-electron effect contamination is undeniable. Hence, the integration of various criteria becomes imperative for attaining a comprehensive understanding of magnetic responses within complex systems.


Magnetic Response
Electron Delocalization
Heavy elements

Supplementary materials

Supplementary Information
Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Figures S1-S9, Table S1-S4, and Cartesian coordinates of the optimized molecular structures.


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