DNA-origami-armored DNA condensates

27 February 2024, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


DNA condensates, formed by liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), emerge as promising soft matter assemblies for creating artificial cells. The advantages of DNA condensates are their molecular permeability through the surface due to their membrane-less structure and their fluidic property. However, they face challenges in the design of their surface, e.g., unintended fusion and less regulation of permeable molecules. Addressing them, we report surface modification of DNA condensates with DNA origami nanoparticles, employing a Pickering-emulsion strategy. We successfully constructed core-shell structures with DNA origami coatings on DNA condensates and further enhanced the condensate stability toward fusion via connecting DNA origamis by responding to DNA input strands. The ‘armoring’ prevented the fusion of DNA condensates, enabling the formation of multicellular-like structures of DNA condensates. Moreover, the permeability was altered through the state change from coating to armoring the DNA condensates. The armored DNA condensates have significant potential for constructing artificial cells, offering increased surface stability and selective permeability for small molecules while maintaining compartmentalized space and multicellular organization.


DNA Droplet
DNA Origami
Liquid-liquid Phase Separation
DNA Capsule

Supplementary materials

Supporting Information: DNA-origami-armored DNA Condensates
Supporting information of the paper, including Experimental Section, Supplementary Notes, Supplementary Figures, Supplementary Tables, and Supplementary References.


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