Parahydrogen-induced polarization of 14N nuclei

08 February 2024, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Hyperpolarization techniques provide a dramatic increase in sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. In spite of the outstanding progress in solution-state hyperpolarization of spin-1/2 nuclei, hyperpolarization of quadrupolar nuclei remains challenging. Here, hyperpolarization of quadrupolar 14N nuclei with natural isotopic abundance of >99% is demonstrated. This is achieved via pairwise addition of parahydrogen to tetraalkylammonium salts with vinyl or allyl unsaturated moieties followed by a subsequent polarization transfer from 1H to 14N nuclei at high magnetic field using PH-INEPT or PH-INEPT+ radiofrequency pulse sequence. Catalyst screening identified water-soluble rhodium complex [Rh(P(m-C6H4SO3Na)3)3Cl] as the most efficient catalyst for hyperpolarization of the substrates under study, providing up to 1.3% and up to 6.6% 1H polarization in the cases of vinyl and allyl precursors, respectively. The performance of PH-INEPT and PH-INEPT+ pulse sequences was optimized with respect to interpulse delays, and the resultant experimental dependences were in good agreement with simulations. As a result, 14N NMR signal enhancement of up to 760-fold at 7.05 T (corresponding to 0.15% 14N polarization) was obtained.


NMR spectroscopy

Supplementary materials

Supporting information
Supporting information: experimental details, polarization calculation procedures, additional results, PH-INEPT simulations


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