NFC Smartphone-based electrochemical microfluidic device integrated with nanobody recognition for C-reactive protein

01 February 2024, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Point-of-care testing (POCT) devices play a crucial role as tools for disease diagnostics. The integration of biorecognition elements with electronic components into these devices widens their functionalities and facilitates the development of complex quantitative assays. Unfortunately, biosensors that exploit large conventional IgG antibodies to capture relevant biomarkers are often limited in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, and storage stability, considerably restricting the use of POCT in real-world applications. Therefore, we used nanobodies, as they are more suitable for fabricating electrochemical biosensors with near-field communication (NFC) technology. Moreover, a flow-through microfluidic device was implemented in this system for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammation biomarker and a model analyte. The resulting sensors not only have high sensitivity and portability but also retain automated sequential flow properties through capillary transport without the need for an external pump. We also compared the accuracy of CRP quantitative analyses between the commercial PalmSens4 and the NFC-based potentiostats. Furthermore, the sensor reliability was evaluated using three biological samples (artificial serum, plasma, and whole blood without any pretreatment). This platform will streamline the development of POCT devices by combining operational simplicity, low cost, fast analysis, and portability.


Near-Field Communication
Screen-printed electrode
C-reactive protein
Electrochemical sensor

Supplementary materials

Supplementary info
SI with additional experimental descriptions, schemes for the setup and further electrochemical measurements.


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting Policy [opens in a new tab] - please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy [opens in a new tab] and Terms of Service [opens in a new tab] apply.