Preparation and characterization of transferable encapsulated dye-sensitized solar cells

09 January 2024, Version 2
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


The increasing demand for sustainable energy as a means to combat the impact of climate change is addressed via a novel concept in the present work. Herein, the development of encapsulated dye-sensitized solar cells, canonically “solar capsules”, for photovoltaic applications on alternative surfaces, such as facades, is presented. The solar capsule assembly houses all components necessary for photovoltaic energy conversion, enclosed within a semiconductor nanotubular array, making them truly unique in their construction. This capsule-style unit enables an easy transfer and draft onto a wide range of materials and surfaces for photovoltaic functionalization and applications. This type of dye-sensitized solar cell typically consists of transferred solar capsules and two additional electrodes. The design and construction of solar capsules have high economic viability as they can seamlessly be up-scaled using commercially established techniques such as anodization and subsequent functionalization. This work demonstrates a working model of such a capsule by fabricating TiO2 nanotubes that are functionalized via facile dip- and spin-coating techniques in a wet lab at ambient conditions. These prototype solar capsules are characterized in bulk and are thoroughly investigated at the nanoscale for information on the chemical distribution of the constituents, as they may be influenced during the manufacturing process.


Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Solar Capsules

Supplementary materials

Preparation of DSSC based on solar capsules
The preparation of DSSC based on solar capsules is briefly illustrated in a video.


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting Policy [opens in a new tab] - please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy [opens in a new tab] and Terms of Service [opens in a new tab] apply.