Integrating Mobile and Fixed-Site Black Carbon Measurements to Bridge Spatiotemporal Gaps in Urban Air Quality

26 December 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Urban air pollution can vary sharply in space and time. However, few monitoring strategies can concurrently resolve spatial and temporal variation at fine scales. Here, we present a new measurement-driven spatiotemporal modeling approach that transcends the individual limitations of two complementary sampling paradigms: mobile monitoring and fixed-site sensor network. We develop, validate, and apply this model using data from an intensive, 100-day field study of black carbon in West Oakland, CA. The model performs well in reconstructing patterns at fine spatial and temporal resolution (30 m, 15 minutes), demonstrating strong out-of-sample correlations for both mobile (Pearson’s R ~ 0.77) and fixed-site measurements (R ~ 0.95) while revealing features that are not effectively captured by a single monitoring approach in isolation. The model reveals sharp concentration gradients near major emission sources while capturing their temporal variability, offering valuable insights into pollution sources and dynamics. This integrated approach, offering spatiotemporal completeness, can contribute to targeted interventions and informed policy decisions while addressing the limitations of individual monitoring strategies in urban air quality research.


Black Carbon
Spatiotemporal Modeling
Mobile Monitoring
Low-Cost Sensors
Urban Air Quality

Supplementary materials

Supporting Information (SI)
Supplementary text, tables, and figures.


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