The Role of Protons in and Around Biradicals for Cross-Effect Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

18 December 2023, Version 2
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


In magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization, biradicals such as bis-nitroxides are used to hyperpolarize protons under microwave irradiation through the cross-effect mechanism. This mechanism relies on electron-electron spin interactions (dipolar coupling and exchange interaction) and electron to nuclear spin interactions (hyperfine coupling) to hyperpolarize the protons surrounding the biradical. This hyperpolarization is then transferred to the bulk sample via nuclear spin diffusion. However, the involvement of the protons in the biradical in the cross-effect DNP process has been under debate. In this work, we address this question by exploring the hyperpolarization pathways in and around bis-nitroxides. We demonstrate that for biradicals with strong electron-electron interactions, as in the case of the AsymPols, the protons on the biradical may not be necessary to quickly generate hyperpolarization. Instead, such biradicals can efficiently, and directly, polarize the surrounding protons of the solvent. The findings should impact the design of the next generation of biradicals..


Spin dynamics

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