Transient intermediate in the formation of an amorphous metal–organic framework

07 December 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Amorphous metal–organic frameworks are rarely formed via direct synthesis. Our limited understanding of their atomic assembly in solution prevents full exploitation of the unique functionalities that their structural complexity can impart. Here, we use in-situ synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy with sub-second time resolution to probe the formation of the amorphous Fe-BTC framework. Using a combination of spectral fingerprinting, linear combination analysis, and principal component analysis coupled with kinetic analyses, we reveal a multi- stage formation mechanism that, crucially, proceeds via the generation of a transient intermediate species.


X-ray absorption spectroscopy
Metal–organic frameworks
Formation kinetics

Supplementary materials

Supplementary Information
Materials & methods and Supplementary Figures


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