A high-performing spinel LiMn2O4 cathode material with unique morphology and scaled manufacture

27 November 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


High power application of Li battery remains a challenge due to the lack of suitable cathode materials that are stable at high current rates. Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4 or LMO) spinel cathode is very promising due to its high operating voltage as well as fast charging ability, however, the associated Mn dissolution is one of the main hindrances to its practical applicability. In this work, we report a commercially scalable method (from 100 g to a few hundred kilograms of material) to develop novel lithium manganese oxide (LMO) electrode material with a unique multilayered morphology. This novel material (named CXL LMO) was tested in a Li metal cell where a reversible specific capacity of 110 mAh/g was achieved with 99% retention after 100 cycles. It showed excellent rate performance up to 20C current rate which is equivalent to 20 mA/cm2 current density. A Li-ion cell (CXL LMO|Graphite) was also reported with a practical areal capacity of 1 mAh/cm2 and showed stable behavior for more than 500 cycles. Cross-section morphology revealed the multi-layered structure was retained at the core of the novel LMO material and the structural integrity was maintained during cycling without any morphological degradation at a high rate and obtained lesser Mn dissolution compared to commercial LMO. The scalable synthesis procedure, high current rate stability, high cathode areal loading, and superior capacity retention make CXL LMO a promising candidate for high-power Li batteries.


Lithium ion battery
Fast charging
High voltage battery
Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) cathode

Supplementary materials

Supplementary information
Additional information is provided in this document.


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