High Aspect Ratio Silver Nanogrids by Bottom-Up Electrochemical Growth as Transparent Electrode

25 October 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


A scalable selective area electrochemical method is reported for the fabrication of interconnected metal nanostructures. In this work, the fabrication of silver nanowire grids for the application of transparent electrodes is explored. The presented method is based on a through-the-mask electrodeposition method, where the mask is made using substrate conformal imprint lithography. We find that the nucleation density of the silver nanoparticles is the key parameter for the successful homogenous void-free filling of the template. We independently control the density of the silver nuclei and their growth by using a double potential pulse. The silver nanowire grids show high transmission (95.9%) and low sheet resistance (as low as 3.7 Ohm/sq), resulting into a superior Figure of Merit (FoM). Due to the bottom-up nature of this technique, arbitrarily high aspect ratio nanowires can be achieved and therefore the relationship of decreasing transmission with decreasing sheet resistance is broken. The presented method can be generalized to the large-area nanofabrication of any well-defined nanostructure design of any metal transparent electrode for multiple applications.


Transparent Electrode
Nanowire grid
Electrochemical Nanofilling


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