We present an efficient polarizable electrostatic model, utilizing typed, atom-centered, polarizabilities and the fast direct approximation, designed for efficient use in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The model provides two convenient approaches to assigning partial charges in the context of the atomic polarizabilities. One is a generalization of RESP, called RESP-dPol, and the other, AM1-BCC-dPol, is an adaptation of the widely used AM1-BCC method. Both are designed to accurately replicate gas-phase QM electrostatic potentials. Benchmarks of this polarizable electrostatic model against gas-phase dipole moments, molecular polarizabilities, bulk liquid densities, and static dielectric constants of organic liquids, show good agreement with the reference values. Of note, the model yields markedly more accurate dielectric constants of organic liquids, relative to a matched non-polarizable force field. MD simulations with this method, which is currently parameterized for molecules containing elements C, N, O, and H, run about only 3.6-fold slower than fixed charge force fields, while simulations with the self-consistent mutual polarization average 4.5-fold slower. Our results suggest that RESP-dPol and AM1-BCC-dPol afford improved accuracy, relative to fixed charge force fields, and are good starting points for developing general, affordable, and transferable polarizable force fields.
Supplementary information including training set molecules, test set molecules, force field parameters, etc.