The C(sp3)-H bond oxygenation of a variety of cyclopropane containing hydrocarbons with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by manganese complexes containing aminopyridine tetradentate ligands were carried out. Oxidations were performed in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) using different manganese catalysts and carboxylic acid co-ligands, where steric and electronic properties were systematically modified. Functionalization selectively occurs at the most activated C-H bonds that are - to cyclopropane, providing access to carboxylate- or 2,2,2-trifluoroethanolate transfer products, with no competition from the generally dominant hydroxylation reaction. The formation of mixtures of unrearranged and rearranged esters (oxidation in HFIP in the presence of a carboxylic acid) and ethers (oxidation in TFE) with full control over diastereoselectivity was observed, confirming the involvement of delocalized cationic intermediates in these transformations. Despite such a complex mechanistic scenario, by fine tuning of catalyst and carboxylic acid sterics and electronics and leveraging on the relative contribution of cationic pathways to the reaction mechanism, control over product chemoselectivity could be systematically achieved. Taken together, the results reported herein provide powerful catalytic tools to rationally manipulate ligand transfer pathways in C-H oxidations of cyclopropane containing hydrocarbons, delivering novel products in good yields and, in some cases, outstanding selectivities, expanding the available toolbox for the development of synthetically useful C-H functionalization procedures.
Supporting information file
Experimental details for the preparation of metal complexes and substrates, catalytic reactions and details on isolation and characterization of the reaction products.