AIMNet2: A Neural Network Potential to Meet your Neutral, Charged, Organic, and Elemental-Organic Needs

12 October 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Machine learned interatomic potentials (MLIPs) are reshaping computational chemistry practices because of their ability to drastically exceed the accuracy-length/time scale tradeoff. Despite this attraction, the benefits of such efficiency are only impactful when an MLIP uniquely enables insight into a target system or is broadly transferable outside of the training dataset, where models achieving the latter are seldom reported. In this work, we present the 2nd generation of our atoms-in-molecules neural network potential (AIMNet2), which is applicable to species composed of up to 14 chemical elements in both neutral and charged states, making it a valuable model for modeling the majority of non-metallic compounds. Using an exhaustive dataset of 20 million hybrid quantum chemical calculations, AIMNet2 combines ML-parameterized short-range and physics-based long-range terms to attain generalizability that reaches from simple organics to diverse molecules with “exotic” element-organic bonding. We show that AIMNet2 outperforms semi-empirical GFN-xTB and is on par with reference density functional theory for interaction energy contributions, conformer search tasks, torsion rotation profiles, and molecular-to-macromolecular geometry optimization. Overall, the demonstrated chemical coverage and computational efficiency of AIMNet2 is a significant step toward providing access to MLIPs that avoid the crucial limitation of curating additional quantum chemical data and retraining with each new application.

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