An empirical experimental observations and MD simulation data-based model for the material properties of confined fluids in nano/Angstrom size tubes

04 October 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


The transport of fluids in nanometer and Angstrom-sized pores has gotten much attention because of its potential uses in nanotechnology, energy storage, and healthcare sectors. Understanding the distinct material properties of fluids in such close confinement is critical for enhancing their performance in various applications. These properties dictate the fluid's behavior and play a crucial role in determining flow dynamics, transport processes, and, ultimately, the performance of nanoscale devices. Remarkably, many researchers observed that the size of the geometry, such as the diameter of the confining nanotube, exerts a profound and intriguing influence on the material properties of nanoconfined fluids, including on the critical parameters such as density, viscosity, and slip length. Many researchers tried to model these material properties: viscosity $\eta$, density $\rho$, and slip $\lambda$ using various models with many dependencies on the tube diameter. It is somewhat confusing and tough to decide which model is appropriate and needs to be incorporated in the numerical simulation. In this paper, we tried to propose a simple single equation for each nano confined material property such as for density $\displaystyle \rho(D)/\rho_o = a+ b/(D-c)^n$, viscosity $\displaystyle \eta(D)/\eta_o = a+ b/(D-c)^n$, and the slip length $\lambda(D) = \lambda_1~D~e^{-n~D}+ \lambda_o$ (where $a,~b,~c,~n,~\lambda_1,~\lambda_o$ are the free fitting parameters). We model a wealth of previous experimental and MD simulation data from the literature using our proposed model for each material property of nanoconfined fluids at the nanometer and Angstrom scales. Our single proposed equation effectively captures and models all the data, even though many different models have been employed in the existing literature to describe the same material property. Our proposed model exhibits exceptional agreement with multiple independent datasets from the experimental observations and molecular dynamics simulations. Additionally, the model possesses the advantageous properties of continuity and a continuous derivative, so the proposed model is well-suited for integration into numerical simulations. Further, the proposed models also obey the far boundary conditions, i.e., when tube diameter $D \implies \infty$, the material properties tend to the bulk properties of the fluid. Due to the models' simplicity, smooth, and generic nature, this heuristic model holds promise to apply in simulations to design and optimize nanoscale devices.


water nanoconfined properties
nano/Angstrom-size capillaries
nanoconfined material properties
nanoconfined models for density
and slip
modelling of nanoconfined material properties


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