Structure-Activity Relationship in NOD2 Agonistic Muramyl Dipeptides

25 September 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is a receptor of the innate immune system that is capable of perceiving bacterial and viral infections. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP, N-acetyl muramyl ¬L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine), identified as the minimal immunologically active component of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (PGN), is recognized by NOD2. In terms of biological activities, MDP demonstrated vaccine adjuvant activity and stimulated non-specific protection against bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections and tumors. However, MDP has certain drawbacks including pyrogenicity, rapid elimination, andlack of oral bioavailability. Several detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies around MDP scaffolds are being carried out to identify better NOD2 ligands. The present review elaborates a comprehensive SAR summarizing structural aspects of MDP derivatives in relation to NOD2 agonistic activity.


muramyl dipeptide
vaccine adjuvant
innate immunity


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting Policy [opens in a new tab] - please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy [opens in a new tab] and Terms of Service [opens in a new tab] apply.