Understanding the effects of transition metal intercalation on electronic and electrochemical properties of Ti3C2Tx MXene

14 August 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


MXenes are 2D transition metal carbides, nitrides, and/or carbonitrides, capable of intercalation by various cations through chemical or electrochemical means. Previous research has primarily focused on intercalating alkaline and alkaline earth cations, such as Li+, K+, Na+, Mg2+ or alkylammonium cations, into Ti3C2Tx MXenes. However, the impact of intercalated transition metal (TM) ions on the electronic and electrochemical properties of MXenes remains largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the effects of pre-intercalated Cu ions on Ti3C2Tx MXenes and vice versa to gain a comprehensive understanding of how the electronic and electrochemical properties of both intercalated TM ion and MXene host are altered. Using in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), we reveal changes in the oxidation states of intercalated Cu ions and Ti atoms during charging and their corresponding role in charge storage mechanisms. Our findings show that electronic coupling between Ti3C2Tx and Cu ions results in modified electrochemical and electronic properties compared to pristine Ti3C2Tx. These insights lay the foundation for the rational design and utilization of TM ion intercalants to tailor the properties of MXenes for various electrochemical systems and beyond.


2D materials
X-Ray spectroscopy
Charge storage

Supplementary materials

Additional characterization of the pristine and intercalated MXene material
STEM images, XAS analysis and additional material characterization data (XRD, EDX, ICP) and a table with Bader charge


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting Policy [opens in a new tab] - please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy [opens in a new tab] and Terms of Service [opens in a new tab] apply.