Excited-state odd-even effect in through-space interactions

03 July 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Odd-even effect is a fantastic phenomenon in nature, which has been applied in diverse fields such as organic self-assembled monolayers and liquid crystals. Currently, the origin of each odd-even effect remains elusive, and all of the reported odd-even effects are about the ground-state properties. Here we discover an excited-state odd-even effect in through-space interaction (TSI) of nonconjugated tetraphenylalkanes (TPAs). The TPAs with an even number of alkyl carbon atoms (C2-TPA, C4-TPA, and C6-TPA) show strong TSI, long-wavelength emission, and high QY. However, the odd ones (C1-TPA, C3-TPA, C5-TPA, and C7-TPA) are almost nonemissive with negligible QY. Systematically experimental and theoretical results reveal that the excited-state odd-even effect is synthetically determined by three factors: alkyl geometry, molecular moveability, and intermolecular packing. Moreover, these flexible luminescent TPAs possess tremendous advantages in fluorescent information encryptions. This work extends the odd-even effect to photophysics, demonstrating its substantial importance and universality in nature.


excited state
odd-even effect
through-space interaction

Supplementary materials

Supporting Information
Supporting Information of this work.


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