Protein tyrosine phosphatases are crucial regulators of cellular signaling. Their activity is regulated by the motion of a conserved loop, the WPD-loop, from a catalytically inactive open to a catalytically active closed conformation. WPD-loop motion optimally positions a catalytically critical residue into the active site, and is directly linked to the turnover number of these enzymes. Crystal structures of chimeric PTPs constructed by grafting parts of the WPD-loop sequence of PTP1B onto the scaffold of YopH showed WPD-loops in a wide-open conformation never previously observed in either parent enzyme. This wide-open conformation has, however, been observed upon binding of small molecule inhibitors to other PTPs, suggesting the potential of targeting it for drug discovery efforts. Here, we have performed simulations of both enzymes and show that there are negligible energetic differences in the chemical step of catalysis, but significant differences in the dynamical properties of the WPD-loop. Detailed interaction network analysis provides insight into the molecular basis for this population shift to a wide-open conformation. Taken together, our study provides insight into the links between loop dynamics and chemistry in these YopH variants specifically, and how WPD-loop dynamic can be engineered through modification of the internal protein interaction network.
Supporting Information for: Sequence – Dynamics – Function Relationships in Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
Additional methodological details and simulation analysis.