The efficiency of machine learning algorithms for electronically excited states is far behind ground-state applications. One of the underlying problems is the insufficient smoothness of the fitted potential energy surfaces and other properties in the vicinity of state crossings and conical intersections, which is a prerequisite for an efficient regression. Smooth surfaces can be obtained by switching to the diabatic basis. However, diabatization itself is still an outstanding problem. We overcome these limitations by solving both problems at once. We use a machine learning approach combining clustering and regression techniques to correct for the deficiencies of property-based diabatization which, in return, provides us with smooth surfaces that can be easily fitted. Our approach extends the applicability of property-based diabatization to multidimensional systems. We show the performance of the proposed methodology by reconstructing global potential energy surfaces of excited states of nitrosyl fluoride and formaldehyde. While the proposed methodology is independent of the specific property-based diabatization and regression algorithm, we show its performance for kernel ridge regression and a very simple diabatization based on transition multipoles. Compared to most other algorithms based on machine learning, our approach needs only a small amount of training data.
Supplementary Data for the Paper
Sampled geometries for both molecules, training indices, and calculated excitation energies and transition moments.