Improving the performance of nanocarriers remains a major challenge in the clinical translation of nanomedicine. Efforts to optimize nanoparticle formulations typically rely on tuning the surface density and thickness of stealthy polymer coatings such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Here, we show that modulating the surface topography of PEGylated nanoparticles using bottlebrush block copolymer (BBCP) significantly enhances circulation and tumor accumulation providing an alternative strategy to improve nanoparticle coatings. Specifically, nanoparticles with rough surface topography achieve high tumor cell uptake in vivo due to superior tumor extravasation and distribution compared to conventional smooth-surfaced nanoparticles. Furthermore, surface topography profoundly impacts the interaction with serum proteins resulting in the adsorption of fundamentally different proteins onto the surface of rough-surfaced nanoparticles formed from BBCPs. We envision that controlling the nanoparticle surface topography of PEGylated nanoparticles will enable the design of improved nanocarriers in various biomedical applications.