A Wearable Electrochemical Biosensor for Lactate Monitoring in Sweat

25 April 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


This study aimed to optimize the inkjet printing process for the fabrication of rGO- based lactate biosensors. The ink used for printing possessed proper fluidic properties, and the droplets were connected on the film by repeated printing process. The ink also contained ethyl cellulose, which reduced the coffee ring effect and resulted in a uniform film of rGO. The optimal density of Anti-L on the surface of the sensor was found to be 200 mM, and the incubation time for lactate samples was optimized to 60 minutes. The device showed linear responses from 100 to 500 μM with a high sensitivity of about 0.5 per 100 μM lactate and a low detection limit at 23 μM at S/N=3. This study demonstrates that optimized inkjet printing can be used to fabricate highly sensitive lactate biosensors for various applications.


Lactate sensor
wearable sensor
inkjet printing


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