The ability to a site-selectively modify equivalent functional groups in a molecule has the potential to streamline syntheses and increase product yields by lowering step counts. Enzymes catalyze site-selective transformations throughout primary and secondary metabolism, but leveraging this capability for non-native substrates and reactions requires a detailed understanding of the potential and limitations of enzyme catalysis and how these bounds can be extended by protein engineering. In this review, we discuss representative examples of site-selective enzyme catalysis involving functional group manipulation and C-H bond functionalization. We include illustrative examples of native catalysis, but our focus is on cases involving non-native substrates and reactions often using engineered enzymes. We then discuss the use of these enzymes for chemoenzymatic transformations and target-oriented synthesis and conclude with a survey of tools and techniques that could expand the scope of non-native site-selective enzyme catalysis.