Fabrication of ITO microelectrodes and electrode arrays using low-cost CO2 laser plotter

28 March 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Excellent electronic and optical properties make indium tin oxide (ITO) an attractive electrode substrate. Despite the commercial availability of high-quality ITO and some low-cost methods for direct deposition being in use by now, the definition of patterns is still a concern. Putting its popularity and extensive usage aside, the manufacturing of ITO electrodes so far lacks a rapid, highly reproducible, flexible, cost-effective, easy patterning process that could surpass difficult, time-consuming techniques such as lithography. A cost-effective method based on CO2 laser irradiation for preparing ITO microelectrodes and electrode arrays is presented herein. Electrodes of different sizes and shapes were examined to identify the performance of the proposed methods. Direct ablation of the ITO layer was optimized for rectangular electrodes of 25, 50, and 100 µm width, while laser cutting of scotch tape stencils and subsequent wet etching were used to create circular electrodes with a diameter of 1.75mm. Together, both methods form a complete toolbox, which allows for low-cost and fast fabrication of ITO electrodes for wide variety of applications. A multielectrode array system consisting 8 of these circular electrodes was fashioned, fabricated, assembled and tested. The ITO electrodes were characterized electrochemically and as an example application they were used for monitoring anchoring behavior of HeLa and HepG2 cell cultures through cell-based electrochemical impedance technique.


Laser ablation
Laser beam cutting
Impedance spectroscopy
Indium tin oxide
Hep G2 cells
HeLa cells
Scanning electrochemical microscopy

Supplementary materials

Supplementary Informantion
Supplementary information in the form of graphs and SEM images: -Performance of a 100µm electrode at different scan rates. -Cyclic Voltammogram of the ITO circular electrodes on different plates. -Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the rectangular-shaped electrodes. -Detailed structural and morphological imaging of a 100µm electrode using SEM and EDX


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting Policy [opens in a new tab] - please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy [opens in a new tab] and Terms of Service [opens in a new tab] apply.