Amino acid-based polyphosphorodiamidates with hydrolytically labile bonds for degradation-tuned photopolymers


Photochemical additive manufacturing technologies can produce complex geometries in short production times and thus have considerable potential as a tool to fabricate medical devices such as individualised patient-specific implants, prosthetics and tissue engineering scaffolds. However, most photopolymer resins degrade only slowly under the mild conditions required for many biomedical applications. Herein we report novel amino acid-based polyphosphorodiamidate (APdA) monomers with hydrolytically cleavable bonds. The substituent on the α-amino acid can be used as a handle for facile control of hydrolysis rates of the monomers into their endogenous components, namely phosphate and the corresponding amino acid. Furthermore, monomer hydrolysis is considerably accelerated at lower pH values. The monomers underwent thiol-yne photopolymerization and could be 3D structured via multi-photon lithography. Copolymerization with commonly used hydrophobic thiols demonstrates not only their ability to regulate the ambient degradation rate of thiol-yne polyester photopolymer resins but also rare but highly desirable surface erosion behaviour. Such degradation profiles, in the appropriate timeframes in suitably mild conditions, combined with their good cytocompatibility and 3D printability, render these novel photomonomers of significant interest for a wide range of biomaterial applications.


Supplementary material

Supporting Information
Experimental part, additional data for polymer characterization and full NMR spectra.