The growing consumption of fermented products has led to an increasing demand for lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially for LAB tolerant to freezing/thawing conditions. Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is a psychrotrophic and freeze-thawing resistant lactic acid bacterium. The membrane is the primary site of damage during the cryo-preservation process and requires modulation to improve cryoresistance. However, knowledge about the membrane structure of this LAB genus is limited. We presented here the first study of the membrane lipid composition of C. maltaromaticum CNCM I-3298 including the polar heads and the fatty acid compositions of each lipid family (neutral lipids, glycolipids, phospholipids). The strain CNCM I-3298 is principally composed of glycolipids (32%) and phospholipids (55%). About 95% of glycolipids are dihexaosyldiglyceride while less than 5% are monohexaosyldiglyceride. The disaccharide chain of dihexaosyldiglyceride is composed of α-Gal(1-2)-α-Glc chain, evidenced for the first time in a LAB strain other than lactobacillus strains. Phosphatidylglycerol is the main phospholipid (94%). All polar lipids are exceptionally rich in C18:1 (from 70 to 80%). Regarding the fatty acid composition, C. maltaromaticum CNCM I-3298 is an atypical bacterium within the genus Carnobacterium due to its high C18:1 proportion but resemble the other Carnobacterium strains as they mostly do not contain cyclic fatty acids.
Membrane lipid composition of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum CNCM I-3298, a highly cryoresistant lactic acid bacterium