On the use of Soft X-ray STXM for Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Photovoltaic Materials


Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) research is an intense field that could benefit from every available research tool. Synchrotron tools have played an important role in fundamental and applied research for decades. Many synchrotron-based hard X-ray tools are already providing effective feedback to the PSC research community. With several fourth-generation light sources up and running or under development, this contribution will continue to impact every aspect of scientific advancement including PSC research. Arguably, the contribution of soft X-rays in PSC research is relatively limited. In view of the developments in the synchrotron world and the fact that a multimethod approach, combining laboratory-based techniques as well as synchrotron-based techniques, is necessary to provide constructive feedback to the PSC community we present here a collection of arguments and procedures with the aim of highlighting the use of soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Some aspects of these arguments are elaborated with STXM investigation of perovskite material formamidinium-methylammonium lead iodide (FA1-xMAxPbI3).