Programmable catalysts that change on the time scale of a catalytic cycle provide a new opportunity to control the flow of energy to reactants and products to promote faster and more selective chemistry. While traditional chemical manufacturing processes consume energy to achieve favorable reaction conditions, programmable catalysts aim to dynamically add or remove energy to catalytic cycles through perturbations of the catalytic surface via strain, charge, or light. These surface energy flows are quantified by the changes in adsorbate binding energy with time, and the overall efficiency relating energy inputs to catalytic performance are defined by the characteristics of the undulating catalytic surface. Understanding and quantification of energy flows in programmable catalysts provides baseline definitions and metrics for comparing dynamic conditions and identifying optimal catalytic performance for more efficient chemical manufacturing.
Updated with additional new references