The Design, Synthesis, and Inhibition of Clostridioides difficile Spore Germination by Acyclic and Bicyclic Tertiary Amide Analogs of Cholate

03 March 2023, Version 1
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a major identifiable cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In our previous study (J. Med Chem, 2018, 61, 6759-6778), we have identified N-phenyl-cholan-24-amide as a potent inhibitor of spore germination. The most potent compounds in our previous work are N-arylamides. We were interested in the role that the conformation of the amide plays in activity. Previous research has shown that secondary N-arylamides exist exclusively in the coplanar trans conformation while tertiary N-methyl-N-arylamides exist in a non-planar, cis conformation. The N-methy-N-phenyl-cholan-24-amide was 17-fold less active compared to the parent compounds suggesting the importance of the orientation of the phenyl ring. To lock the phenyl ring into a trans conformation, cyclic tertiary amides were prepared. Indoline and quinoline cholan-24-amides were both inhibitors of spore germination; however, the indoline analogs were most potent. Isoindoline and isoquinoline amides were inactive. We found that the simple indoline derivative gave an IC50 value of 1 M, while the 5-fluoro-substituted compound (5d) possessed an IC50 of 400 nM. To our knowledge, 5d is the most potent known spore germination inhibitor described to date. Taken together, our results indicate that the trans, coplanar conformation of the phenyl ring is required for potent inhibition.


Clostridioides difficile
spore germination
bile salt


Comments are not moderated before they are posted, but they can be removed by the site moderators if they are found to be in contravention of our Commenting Policy [opens in a new tab] - please read this policy before you post. Comments should be used for scholarly discussion of the content in question. You can find more information about how to use the commenting feature here [opens in a new tab] .
This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy [opens in a new tab] and Terms of Service [opens in a new tab] apply.