Government policies and corporate strategies aimed at reducing methane emissions from the oil and gas sector increasingly rely on measurement-informed emissions inventories, as conventional bottom-up inventories poorly capture temporal variability and the heavy-tailed nature of methane emissions. This work is based on an 11-month methane measurement campaign at oil and gas production sites. We find that basin- and operator-level top-down measurements show lower methane emissions during end-of-project than during baseline 9-months earlier. However, gaps persist between end-of-project top-down measurements and bottom-up inventories, which we reconcile with high-frequency data from continuous monitoring systems (CMS). Specifically, we use CMS to (i) assess the validity of snapshot measurements and determine how they relate to the temporal emissions profile of a given site and (ii) create a near-real time, measurement-informed inventory that can be cross-checked with top-down measurements to update conventional bottom-up inventories. This work presents a real-world demonstration of how CMS can be used to reconcile top-down snapshot measurements with bottom-up inventories at the site-level. More broadly, it demonstrates the importance of multi-scale measurements when creating measurement-informed emissions inventories, which is a critical aspect of recent regulatory requirements in the Inflation Reduction Act, voluntary methane initiatives such as OGMP 2.0, and corporate strategies.
Towards multi-scale measurement-informed methane inventories: reconciling bottom-up inventories with top-down measurements using continuous monitoring systems - Supporting Information
This document contains additional information about the QMRV protocol, the field campaign, and the measurement results.