Broad Electronic Modulation of 2D Metal-Organic Frameworks Over Four Distinct Redox States


Two-dimensional (2D) inorganic materials have emerged as exciting platforms for (opto)electronic, thermoelectric, magnetic, and energy storage applications. However, electronic redox tuning of these materials can be difficult. Instead, 2D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offer the possibility of electronic tuning through stoichiometric redox changes, with several examples featuring one to two redox events per formula unit. Here we demonstrate that this principle can be extended over a far greater span with the isolation of four discrete redox states in the 2D MOFs LixFe3(THT)2 (x = 03, THT = triphenylene hexathiol). This redox modulation results in 10,000-fold greater conductivity, p- to n-type carrier switching, and modulation of antiferromagnetic coupling. Physical characterization suggests that changes in carrier density drive these trends with relatively constant charge transport activation energies and mobilities. This series illustrates that 2D MOFs are uniquely redox flexible, making them an ideal materials platform for tunable and switchable applications.


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