Cation disorder dominates the defect chemistry of high-voltage LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (LMNO) spinel cathodes

27 January 2023, Version 2
This content is a preprint and has not undergone peer review at the time of posting.


High-voltage spinel LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (LMNO) can exist in a Mn/Ni ordered P4_332 or disordered Fd-3m arrangement with a majority of literature studies reporting improved electrochemical performance for the disordered phase. Through modifying synthesis conditions, the Mn/Ni ordering can be tuned, however oxygen and Mn3+ stoichiometries are also affected, making it difficult to decouple these responses and optimise performance. Here, we investigate all intrinsic defects in P4_332 LMNO under various growth conditions, using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that the majority of defects are deep and associated with small polarons (Mn3+, Mn2+ and Ni3+) formation. The tendency for cation disorder can be explained by the low formation energy of the antisite defects and their stoichiometric complexes. The intrinsic Fermi level of LMNO varies from moderately n-type under oxygen-poor conditions to weakly p-type under oxygen-rich conditions. Our work explains experimental observations (e.g. the Mn/Ni disorder) and provides guidelines for defect-controlled synthesis.


Li-ion batteries
High-voltage spinel

Supplementary materials

Supplementary Information
Supplementary Information for "Cation disorder dominates the defect chemistry of high-voltage LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 (LMNO) spinel cathodes"


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